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Chromatography is a way of separating two or more chemical compounds. Chemical compounds are chemicals that are bonded together. For example, water is a chemical bond of oxygen and hydrogen. Proteins are another type of chemical compound.
There are different kinds of chromatography. These include gas, high pressure liquid, or ion exchange chromatography.
In general, chromatography uses the differences in chemicals to separate them. These differences might include their size, electric charge, or how well they stick to other material.
Pincus MR, Lifshitz MS, Bock JL. Analysis: principles of instrumentation. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods. 23rd ed. St Louis, MO: Elsevier; 2017:chap 4.